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Diabetes and dentistry
What is Type 1 Diabetes and Type 2 Diabetes?
It is known that, diseases of the intra-oral tissue trigger some systemic diseases; systemic diseases also have effect on tooth and its surrounding tissue. Diabetes Mellitus is systemic disease with this kind of effects.
What Are The Oral Findings Frequently Encountered in Diabetic Patients?
Diabetes Mellitus has two types according to insulin. Insulin is the key hormone of diabetes and its main task is regulating blood glucose. Type 1 DM results from the body is failure to produce enough insulin and type 2 DM begins with insulin resistance. Type 2 is more common and its major symptoms are increased thirst and frequent urination, increased hunger and weight loss. ‘’Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus’’ is diagnosed when fasting blood glucose level is greater than 125 and postprandial blood glucose level is greater than 200 in patients who are over age 45 and overweight. Diabetes causes many changes in the body. The disease damages vessels that nourish the hearth, brain, eye and kidney. Type 2 DM patients cannot use glucose to obtain energy due to impaired insulin mechanism. Lipids and proteins are used instead of glucose for energy. So, proteins used in the immune response decreases and wound healing is delayed. Lipid catabolism results in the production of ketone bodies and this triggers diabetic ‘’ketoacidosis’’. Diabetic ketoacidosis leads to blurred vision and loss of consciousness in time.
Why should diabetic patients schedule their appointments early?
Diabetes makes patients prone to infections. Wound healing is delayed during inflammation due to weak immune system. Therefore, treatment of diseases in oral cavity or elsewhere in the body is difficult. ‘Periodontitis’ is a set of inflammatory diseases affecting tissues that surround and support the teeth and it is one of the most common intraoral diseases in patients with diabetes. The changes occurring in intraoral soft tissue are; inflamed bleeding gums, gingival enlargement, loss of attachment and bone due to the inflammation that reaches to the underlying tissue. If these problems cannot be controlled, tooth loss is inevitable. Recurrent abscesses, decreased saliva, dry mouth, halitosis, increased risk of dental caries, fungal infections occur.