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Gingival response to certain factors varies according to age, gender, general health condition, systemic diseases, Professional factors and emotional status. Depending on the etiologic factor, the severity of this inflammatory response may be small or large. The most common type of gingival diseases is chronic gingival inflammation and it usually causes the periodontal disease to begin by spreading to surrounding tissues.
Inflammation is a common thing in all types of gum diseases. Because, local factors such as bacterial plaque, tartar, microorganisms and their harmful products are always present near the gingival tissue and they cause gingival inflammation called gingivitis.
Early phases of gingival diseases which could be easily treated are usually not noticed by patients who do not go to regular dentist visits and this causes progression of the disease to more serious gingival diseases. Advanced gingival diseases are called periodontitis. Advanced gingival infections cause soft and hart tissues covering the teeth to erode and in case of continuation of bone erosion present teeth will get loose and be lost in a series.
Various changes occur in gingiva and surrounding tissues in gum diseases.
Discoloration of gingiva. Healthy gum tissue is usually pale pink or rose. This tone of color may vary in some races. Changes in normal gum color indicated beginning of gingival diseases.
In the process beginning in the early phases of gingival diseases till the advanced phases, pale pink gum color turns into red or dark blue color range. Change of color plays a role in diagnosis and treatment planning. Constant damage and repair mechanism in the inflammatory gum tissue causes discolorations as well as volume, intensity and surface character of the gum to change.
Color changes in gum occur due to changes in blood circulation in purpose of defense for repair of inflammatory areas. Redder image of gums means enlarged capillary blood vessels and more blood flow. Depending on the infection, structure of capillary blood vessels in the gingival area gets impaired and bleeding may occur while eating, brushing and even spontaneously.