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Periodontal tissues are inflamed due to accumulation of microbial dental plaque which covers the teeth. It is a complex formation formed by bacteria, epithelium, other cellular wastes, various saliva proteins and food remnants. The plaque covering the teeth is a physiological process and it is not possible to prevent it from happening. The plaque, which is harmless for the first few hours, begins synthesizing toxic substances that cause inflammation when it reaches to a certain thickness. Most of periodontal diseases are chronic inflammatory diseases and they do not create noticeable symptoms such as pain until they reach advanced stages. In this perspective, periodontal diseases may progress inside the mouth without causing any noticeable symptoms and they cause tooth loss.
Gingival bleeding is almost the only symptom which can be seen in any stage of periodontal diseases. In the early periods of the inflammation, only the health of gingiva gets impaired among the tissues mentioned above. In this stage, disease is called “gingivitis”. When the inflammation spreads to other periodontal tissues from the gingival surface, periodontal ligament and alveolar bone is also affected. Alveolar bone which covers the teeth begins to erode. In this phase, the disease is called “periodontitis”. It created abscesses around the teeth, cause the teeth to get loose leading to loss.