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Periodontology is a branch of dentistry interested in treatment of diseases of soft and hard tissues around the teeth. In Greek, peri- means surroundings, odonto-tooth, logos-science, when these three words are brought together, periodontology means the science of surrounding tissues of teeth. These tissues are:
- Cement which forms the last layer of the root of a tooth
- Bone tissue which forms the surroundings of the root of a tooth (alveolar bone)
- Ligament group which functions as a connection between the root and bone (Periodontal ligament)
Our teeth are buried inside the jaw bones in the part called alveolar tubercle. However, teeth do not directly connect to the bone. There is a fibroelastic tissue between the alveolar bone and root, made of fibers. This tissue is named periodontal ligament and it functions as a damper, softening the functional forces on the teeth and transmitting them to the bone. The gingival and oral mucosa covers these tissues.
All these tissues covering the teeth are called “periodontal tissues”.